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Thumbnail : Zバッファテクスチャ / Z-Buffered Texture
Zバッファテクスチャ / Z-Buffered Texture
saharan 2011-08-26 MIT License

再生するにはFlash Playerが必要です。デスクトップのブラウザでご覧ください。

package {
    import flash.display.*;
    import flash.events.*;
    import flash.text.*;
    import net.hires.debug.*;
    [SWF(frameRate = "60", width="465", height="465")]
    
    /**
     * Software rendering in ActionScript3.0 #4
     * @author saharan
     */
    public class FlashSoft3D extends Sprite {
        private var r:Renderer;
        private var count:uint;
        private var box:Model;
        private var t:Texture;
        public static var debug:TextField;
        
        public function FlashSoft3D() {
            if (stage) init();
            else addEventListener(Event.ADDED_TO_STAGE, init);
        }
        
        private function init(e:Event = null):void {
            removeEventListener(Event.ADDED_TO_STAGE, init);
            r = new Renderer(465, 465);
            t = new Texture();
            t.load("http://assets.wonderfl.net/images/related_images/a/ab/abec/abece00e1289e50d09fd112fddef34a5378f8264");
            
            // dirx, diry, dirz, red, green, blue
            // r.light(0).directional(0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1);
            r.light(0).directional(2, 0, 1, 0.6, 0.3, 0.3);
            r.light(1).directional(-2, 0, 1, 0.3, 0.6, 0.3);
            r.light(2).directional(0, -2, 1, 0.3, 0.3, 0.6);
            addChild(r.image);
            // debug = new TextField();
            // debug.x = 200;
            // debug.textColor = 0xffffff;
            // addChild(debug);
            // addChild(new Stats());
            box = new Model();
            box.toBox(1, 1, 1);
            addEventListener(Event.ENTER_FRAME, frame);
        }
        
        private function frame(e:Event = null):void {
            count++;
            r.beginScene(0x000000);
            r.material(0.8, 0.8, 1, 20, 0, 1, 1, 1);
            r.texture(t);
            r.push();
            r.rotateX(count / 70);
            r.rotateY(count / 75);
            r.rotateZ(count / 80);
            r.scale(6, 12, 12);
            box.render(r);
            r.pop();
            r.push();
            r.rotateX(count / 50);
            r.rotateY(count / 55);
            r.rotateZ(count / 60);
            r.scale(12, 12, 6);
            box.render(r);
            r.pop();
            r.endScene();
        }
    }
}

import flash.events.*;
import flash.display.*;
import flash.net.*;
import flash.system.*;

class Renderer {
    private var img:BitmapData;
    private var fBuffer:Vector.<uint>;
    private var zBuffer:Vector.<Number>;
    private var bitmap:Bitmap;
    
    private var texel:Vector.<uint>;
    private var texUse:Boolean;
    private var texWidth:uint;
    private var texHeight:uint;
    private var texSize:uint;
    private var texShift:uint;
    
    private var width:uint;
    private var height:uint;
    private var aspect:Number;
    private var width2:uint;
    private var height2:uint;
    private var size:uint;
    private var near:uint;
    private var far:uint;
    
    private var cameraPosition:Vec3D;
    private var cameraTarget:Vec3D;
    private var cameraUp:Vec3D;
    
    private var worldMatrix:Mat4x4;
    private var viewMatrix:Mat4x4;
    private var projectionMatrix:Mat4x4;
    
    private var numStacks:int;
    private var stack:Vector.<Mat4x4>;
    private var color:Vector.<uint>;
    
    private var amb:Number;
    private var dif:Number;
    private var spc:Number;
    private var shn:Number;
    private var emi:Number;
    private var r:Number;
    private var g:Number;
    private var b:Number;
    
    private var lights:Vector.<Light>;
    private var ambr:Number;
    private var ambg:Number;
    private var ambb:Number;
    
    private var vtop:RVtx; // for recycle object
    private var vleft:RVtx;
    private var vright:RVtx;
    
    public function Renderer(width:uint, height:uint) {
        img = new BitmapData(width, height, false, 0);
        bitmap = new Bitmap(img);
        this.width = width;
        this.height = height;
        aspect = height / width;
        size = width * height;
        width2 = width >> 1;
        height2 = height >> 1;
        numStacks = 0;
        texUse = false;
        zBuffer = new Vector.<Number>(size, true);
        fBuffer = new Vector.<uint>(size, true);
        lights = new Vector.<Light>(8, true);
        for (var i:int = 0; i < 8; i++) lights[i] = new Light();
        stack = new Vector.<Mat4x4>(64, true);
        worldMatrix = new Mat4x4();
        viewMatrix = new Mat4x4();
        projectionMatrix = new Mat4x4();
        
        // system initialization
        lookAt(new Vec3D(0, 0, 50),  new Vec3D(0, 0, 0), new Vec3D(0, 1, 0));
        perspective(60 * Math.PI / 180, 5, 5000);
        ambient(0.2, 0.2, 0.2);
        light(0).directional(0, 0, 1, 1, 1, 1);
        material(0.8, 0.8, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 1);
        vtop = new RVtx();
        vleft = new RVtx();
        vright = new RVtx();
        color = new Vector.<uint>(9, true);
    }
    
    public function get image():Bitmap {
        return bitmap;
    }
    
    public function push():void {
        if(numStacks < 32) {
            stack[numStacks] = new Mat4x4(
                worldMatrix.e00, worldMatrix.e01, worldMatrix.e02, worldMatrix.e03,
                worldMatrix.e10, worldMatrix.e11, worldMatrix.e12, worldMatrix.e13,
                worldMatrix.e20, worldMatrix.e21, worldMatrix.e22, worldMatrix.e23,
                worldMatrix.e30, worldMatrix.e31, worldMatrix.e32, worldMatrix.e33);
            numStacks++;
        }
    }
    
    public function pop():void {
        if (numStacks > 0) {
            numStacks--;
            worldMatrix = stack[numStacks];
        }
    }
    
    public function rotateX(theta:Number):void {
        var temp:Mat4x4 = new Mat4x4();
        temp.rotateX(theta);
        temp.mulEqualMatrix(worldMatrix);
        worldMatrix = temp;
    }
    
    public function rotateY(theta:Number):void {
        var temp:Mat4x4 = new Mat4x4();
        temp.rotateY(theta);
        temp.mulEqualMatrix(worldMatrix);
        worldMatrix = temp;
    }
    
    public function rotateZ(theta:Number):void {
        var temp:Mat4x4 = new Mat4x4();
        temp.rotateZ(theta);
        temp.mulEqualMatrix(worldMatrix);
        worldMatrix = temp;
    }
    
    public function scale(sx:Number, sy:Number, sz:Number):void {
        var temp:Mat4x4 = new Mat4x4();
        temp.scale(sx, sy, sz);
        temp.mulEqualMatrix(worldMatrix);
        worldMatrix = temp;
    }
    
    public function translate(tx:Number, ty:Number, tz:Number):void {
        var temp:Mat4x4 = new Mat4x4();
        temp.translate(tx, ty, tz);
        temp.mulEqualMatrix(worldMatrix);
        worldMatrix = temp;
    }
    
    public function beginScene(background:uint):void {
        for (var i:int = 0; i < size; i++) {
            fBuffer[i] = background;
            zBuffer[i] = 0;
        }
        worldMatrix.identity();
    }
    
    public function renderPolygon(v1:Vertex, v2:Vertex, v3:Vertex):void {
        v1.worldPos.setVector(v1.pos.x, v1.pos.y, v1.pos.z);
        worldMatrix.mulEqualVector(v1.worldPos);
        v2.worldPos.setVector(v2.pos.x, v2.pos.y, v2.pos.z);
        worldMatrix.mulEqualVector(v2.worldPos);
        v3.worldPos.setVector(v3.pos.x, v3.pos.y, v3.pos.z);
        worldMatrix.mulEqualVector(v3.worldPos);
        
        lighting(v1, v2, v3);
        
        v1.viewPos.setVector(v1.worldPos.x, v1.worldPos.y, v1.worldPos.z);
        viewMatrix.mulEqualVector(v1.viewPos);
        v2.viewPos.setVector(v2.worldPos.x, v2.worldPos.y, v2.worldPos.z);
        viewMatrix.mulEqualVector(v2.viewPos);
        v3.viewPos.setVector(v3.worldPos.x, v3.worldPos.y, v3.worldPos.z);
        viewMatrix.mulEqualVector(v3.viewPos);
        
        clipPolygonDepth(v1, v2, v3, 0);
    }
    
    public function light(id:uint):Light {
        return lights[id];
    }
    
    public function ambient(r:Number, g:Number, b:Number):void {
        ambr = r;
        ambg = g;
        ambb = b;
    }
    
    public function material(ambient:Number, diffuse:Number, specular:Number,
        shininess:Number, emission:Number, r:Number, g:Number, b:Number):void {
        amb = ambient;
        dif = diffuse;
        spc = specular;
        shn = shininess;
        emi = emission;
        this.r = r;
        this.g = g;
        this.b = b;
    }
    
    public function texture(tex:Texture):void {
        if (!tex.loaded) {
            texUse = false;
            return;
        }
        texWidth = tex.width;
        texHeight = tex.height;
        texSize = tex.size;
        texel = tex.texel;
        texShift = tex.shift;
        texUse = true;
    }
    
    private function lighting(v1:Vertex, v2:Vertex, v3:Vertex):void {
        // simple lighting
        var cr:Number = amb * ambr * r;
        var cg:Number = amb * ambg * g;
        var cb:Number = amb * ambb * b;
        var sr:Number = 0;
        var sg:Number = 0;
        var sb:Number = 0;
        const nor:Vec3D = v2.worldPos.sub(v1.worldPos).cross(v3.worldPos.sub(v2.worldPos));
        nor.normalize();
        const view:Vec3D = cameraTarget.sub(cameraPosition);
        view.normalize();
        const ref:Vec3D = new Vec3D();
        for (var i:int = 0; i < 8; i++) {
            const light:Light = lights[i];
            if (light.type == Light.DISABLED) continue;
            const lr:Number = light.r;
            const lg:Number = light.g;
            const lb:Number = light.b;
            switch(light.type) {
                case Light.DIRECTIONAL: // directional light
                const dot:Number = light.dir.dot(nor) * dif;
                if (dot > 0) {
                    cr += r * lr * dot;
                    cg += g * lg * dot;
                    cb += b * lb * dot;
                }
                if (spc > 0) {
                    // calc reflection vector and specular
                    // ref = vec - 2 * (nor * vec) * nor
                    var dots:Number = 2 * nor.dot(view);
                    ref.setVector(view.x - nor.x * dots, view.y - nor.y * dots, view.z - nor.z * dots);
                    dots = light.dir.dot(ref);
                    if (dots > 0) {
                        dots = Math.pow(dots, shn) * spc;
                        sr += lr * dots;
                        sg += lg * dots;
                        sb += lb * dots;
                    }
                }
                break;
            }
        }
        if (cr > 1) cr = 1;
        if (cg > 1) cg = 1;
        if (cb > 1) cb = 1;
        if (sr > 1) sr = 1;
        if (sg > 1) sg = 1;
        if (sb > 1) sb = 1;
        color[0] = cr * 0xff;
        color[1] = cg * 0xff;
        color[2] = cb * 0xff;
        color[3] = sr * 0xff;
        color[4] = sg * 0xff;
        color[5] = sb * 0xff;
        cr += sr;
        cg += sg;
        cb += sb;
        if (cr > 1) cr = 1;
        if (cg > 1) cg = 1;
        if (cb > 1) cb = 1;
        color[6] = cr * 0xff;
        color[7] = cg * 0xff;
        color[8] = cb * 0xff;
    }
    
    private function clipPolygonDepth(v1:Vertex, v2:Vertex, v3:Vertex, step:int):void {
        var flag:int;
        var c1:Vertex;
        var c2:Vertex;
        switch(step) {
        case 0:// near
            flag = 0;
            if (v1.viewPos.z < near) flag |= 1;
            if (v2.viewPos.z < near) flag |= 2;
            if (v3.viewPos.z < near) flag |= 4;
            if (flag != 0) {
                switch (flag) {
                case 1:// 1
                    c1 = interpolate(v1, v2, (near - v1.viewPos.z) / (v2.viewPos.z - v1.viewPos.z), false);
                    c2 = interpolate(v1, v3, (near - v1.viewPos.z) / (v3.viewPos.z - v1.viewPos.z), false);
                    c1.viewPos.z = near;
                    c2.viewPos.z = near;
                    clipPolygonDepth(c1, v2, v3, 1);
                    clipPolygonDepth(c1, v3, c2, 1);
                    return;
                case 2:// 2
                    c1 = interpolate(v2, v3, (near - v2.viewPos.z) / (v3.viewPos.z - v2.viewPos.z), false);
                    c2 = interpolate(v2, v1, (near - v2.viewPos.z) / (v1.viewPos.z - v2.viewPos.z), false);
                    c1.viewPos.z = near;
                    c2.viewPos.z = near;
                    clipPolygonDepth(c1, v3, v1, 1);
                    clipPolygonDepth(c1, v1, c2, 1);
                    return;
                case 3:// 1 2
                    c1 = interpolate(v1, v3, (near - v1.viewPos.z) / (v3.viewPos.z - v1.viewPos.z), false);
                    c2 = interpolate(v2, v3, (near - v2.viewPos.z) / (v3.viewPos.z - v2.viewPos.z), false);
                    c1.viewPos.z = near;
                    c2.viewPos.z = near;
                    clipPolygonDepth(c1, c2, v3, 1);
                    return;
                case 4:// 3
                    c1 = interpolate(v3, v1, (near - v3.viewPos.z) / (v1.viewPos.z - v3.viewPos.z), false);
                    c2 = interpolate(v3, v2, (near - v3.viewPos.z) / (v2.viewPos.z - v3.viewPos.z), false);
                    c1.viewPos.z = near;
                    c2.viewPos.z = near;
                    clipPolygonDepth(c1, v1, v2, 1);
                    clipPolygonDepth(c1, v2, c2, 1);
                    return;
                case 5:// 3 1
                    c1 = interpolate(v3, v2, (near - v3.viewPos.z) / (v2.viewPos.z - v3.viewPos.z), false);
                    c2 = interpolate(v1, v2, (near - v1.viewPos.z) / (v2.viewPos.z - v1.viewPos.z), false);
                    c1.viewPos.z = near;
                    c2.viewPos.z = near;
                    clipPolygonDepth(c1, c2, v2, 1);
                    return;
                case 6:// 2 3
                    c1 = interpolate(v2, v1, (near - v2.viewPos.z) / (v1.viewPos.z - v2.viewPos.z), false);
                    c2 = interpolate(v3, v1, (near - v3.viewPos.z) / (v1.viewPos.z - v3.viewPos.z), false);
                    c1.viewPos.z = near;
                    c2.viewPos.z = near;
                    clipPolygonDepth(c1, c2, v1, 1);
                    return;
                case 7:// 1 2 3
                    return;
                }
            }
        case 1:// far
            flag = 0;
            if (v1.viewPos.z > far) flag |= 1;
            if (v2.viewPos.z > far) flag |= 2;
            if (v3.viewPos.z > far) flag |= 4;
            if (flag != 0) {
                switch (flag) {
                case 1:// 1
                    c1 = interpolate(v1, v2, (far - v1.viewPos.z) / (v2.viewPos.z - v1.viewPos.z), false);
                    c2 = interpolate(v1, v3, (far - v1.viewPos.z) / (v3.viewPos.z - v1.viewPos.z), false);
                    c1.viewPos.z = far;
                    c2.viewPos.z = far;
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, v2, v3, 0);
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, v3, c2, 0);
                    return;
                case 2:// 2
                    c1 = interpolate(v2, v3, (far - v2.viewPos.z) / (v3.viewPos.z - v2.viewPos.z), false);
                    c2 = interpolate(v2, v1, (far - v2.viewPos.z) / (v1.viewPos.z - v2.viewPos.z), false);
                    c1.viewPos.z = far;
                    c2.viewPos.z = far;
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, v3, v1, 0);
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, v1, c2, 0);
                    return;
                case 3:// 1 2
                    c1 = interpolate(v1, v3, (far - v1.viewPos.z) / (v3.viewPos.z - v1.viewPos.z), false);
                    c2 = interpolate(v2, v3, (far - v2.viewPos.z) / (v3.viewPos.z - v2.viewPos.z), false);
                    c1.viewPos.z = far;
                    c2.viewPos.z = far;
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, c2, v3, 0);
                    return;
                case 4:// 3
                    c1 = interpolate(v3, v1, (far - v3.viewPos.z) / (v1.viewPos.z - v3.viewPos.z), false);
                    c2 = interpolate(v3, v2, (far - v3.viewPos.z) / (v2.viewPos.z - v3.viewPos.z), false);
                    c1.viewPos.z = far;
                    c2.viewPos.z = far;
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, v1, v2, 0);
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, v2, c2, 0);
                    return;
                case 5:// 3 1
                    c1 = interpolate(v3, v2, (far - v3.viewPos.z) / (v2.viewPos.z - v3.viewPos.z), false);
                    c2 = interpolate(v1, v2, (far - v1.viewPos.z) / (v2.viewPos.z - v1.viewPos.z), false);
                    c1.viewPos.z = far;
                    c2.viewPos.z = far;
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, c2, v2, 0);
                    return;
                case 6:// 2 3
                    c1 = interpolate(v2, v1, (far - v2.viewPos.z) / (v1.viewPos.z - v2.viewPos.z), false);
                    c2 = interpolate(v3, v1, (far - v3.viewPos.z) / (v1.viewPos.z - v3.viewPos.z), false);
                    c1.viewPos.z = far;
                    c2.viewPos.z = far;
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, c2, v1, 0);
                    return;
                case 7:// 1 2 3
                    return;
                }
            }
        }
        clipPolygonScreen(v1, v2, v3, 0);
    }
    
    private function clipPolygonScreen(v1:Vertex, v2:Vertex, v3:Vertex, step:int):void {
        var flag:int;
        var c1:Vertex;
        var c2:Vertex;
        switch(step) {
        case 0:// left
            { // transform
                var invW:Number;
                v1.projPos.setVector(v1.viewPos.x, v1.viewPos.y, v1.viewPos.z, 1);
                projectionMatrix.mulEqualVector(v1.projPos);
                invW = 1 / v1.projPos.w;
                v1.projPos.x *= invW;
                v1.projPos.y *= invW;
                v1.projPos.z = invW;
                v1.projPos.x = width2 + v1.projPos.x * width2 >> 0;
                v1.projPos.y = height2 + v1.projPos.y * height2 >> 0;
                
                v2.projPos.setVector(v2.viewPos.x, v2.viewPos.y, v2.viewPos.z);
                projectionMatrix.mulEqualVector(v2.projPos);
                invW = 1 / v2.projPos.w;
                v2.projPos.x *= invW;
                v2.projPos.y *= invW;
                v2.projPos.z = invW;
                v2.projPos.x = width2 + v2.projPos.x * width2 >> 0;
                v2.projPos.y = height2 + v2.projPos.y * height2 >> 0;
                
                v3.projPos.setVector(v3.viewPos.x, v3.viewPos.y, v3.viewPos.z);
                projectionMatrix.mulEqualVector(v3.projPos);
                invW = 1 / v3.projPos.w;
                v3.projPos.x *= invW;
                v3.projPos.y *= invW;
                v3.projPos.z = invW;
                v3.projPos.x = width2 + v3.projPos.x * width2 >> 0;
                v3.projPos.y = height2 + v3.projPos.y * height2 >> 0;
                
                if (texUse) {
                    v1.tu = v1.u * texWidth;
                    v1.tv = v1.v * texHeight;
                    v2.tu = v2.u * texWidth;
                    v2.tv = v2.v * texHeight;
                    v3.tu = v3.u * texWidth;
                    v3.tv = v3.v * texHeight;
                }
                
                // culling
                if ((v3.projPos.x - v1.projPos.x) * (v2.projPos.y - v1.projPos.y) -
                (v3.projPos.y - v1.projPos.y) * (v2.projPos.x - v1.projPos.x) < 0) return;
            }
            flag = 0;
            if (v1.projPos.x < 0) flag |= 1;
            if (v2.projPos.x < 0) flag |= 2;
            if (v3.projPos.x < 0) flag |= 4;
            if (flag != 0) {
                switch (flag) {
                case 1:// 1
                    c1 = interpolate(v1, v2, -v1.projPos.x / (v2.projPos.x - v1.projPos.x), true);
                    c2 = interpolate(v1, v3, -v1.projPos.x / (v3.projPos.x - v1.projPos.x), true);
                    c1.projPos.x = 0;
                    c2.projPos.x = 0;
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, v2, v3, 1);
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, v3, c2, 1);
                    return;
                case 2:// 2
                    c1 = interpolate(v2, v3, -v2.projPos.x / (v3.projPos.x - v2.projPos.x), true);
                    c2 = interpolate(v2, v1, -v2.projPos.x / (v1.projPos.x - v2.projPos.x), true);
                    c1.projPos.x = 0;
                    c2.projPos.x = 0;
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, v3, v1, 1);
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, v1, c2, 1);
                    return;
                case 3:// 1 2
                    c1 = interpolate(v1, v3, -v1.projPos.x / (v3.projPos.x - v1.projPos.x), true);
                    c2 = interpolate(v2, v3, -v2.projPos.x / (v3.projPos.x - v2.projPos.x), true);
                    c1.projPos.x = 0;
                    c2.projPos.x = 0;
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, c2, v3, 1);
                    return;
                case 4:// 3
                    c1 = interpolate(v3, v1, -v3.projPos.x / (v1.projPos.x - v3.projPos.x), true);
                    c2 = interpolate(v3, v2, -v3.projPos.x / (v2.projPos.x - v3.projPos.x), true);
                    c1.projPos.x = 0;
                    c2.projPos.x = 0;
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, v1, v2, 1);
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, v2, c2, 1);
                    return;
                case 5:// 3 1
                    c1 = interpolate(v3, v2, -v3.projPos.x / (v2.projPos.x - v3.projPos.x), true);
                    c2 = interpolate(v1, v2, -v1.projPos.x / (v2.projPos.x - v1.projPos.x), true);
                    c1.projPos.x = 0;
                    c2.projPos.x = 0;
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, c2, v2, 1);
                    return;
                case 6:// 2 3
                    c1 = interpolate(v2, v1, -v2.projPos.x / (v1.projPos.x - v2.projPos.x), true);
                    c2 = interpolate(v3, v1, -v3.projPos.x / (v1.projPos.x - v3.projPos.x), true);
                    c1.projPos.x = 0;
                    c2.projPos.x = 0;
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, c2, v1, 1);
                    return;
                case 7:// 1 2 3
                    return;
                }
            }
        case 1:// right
            flag = 0;
            if (v1.projPos.x > width) flag |= 1;
            if (v2.projPos.x > width) flag |= 2;
            if (v3.projPos.x > width) flag |= 4;
            if (flag != 0) {
                switch (flag) {
                case 1:// 1
                    c1 = interpolate(v1, v2, (width - v1.projPos.x) / (v2.projPos.x - v1.projPos.x), true);
                    c2 = interpolate(v1, v3, (width - v1.projPos.x) / (v3.projPos.x - v1.projPos.x), true);
                    c1.projPos.x = width;
                    c2.projPos.x = width;
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, v2, v3, 2);
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, v3, c2, 2);
                    return;
                case 2:// 2
                    c1 = interpolate(v2, v3, (width - v2.projPos.x) / (v3.projPos.x - v2.projPos.x), true);
                    c2 = interpolate(v2, v1, (width - v2.projPos.x) / (v1.projPos.x - v2.projPos.x), true);
                    c1.projPos.x = width;
                    c2.projPos.x = width;
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, v3, v1, 2);
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, v1, c2, 2);
                    return;
                case 3:// 1 2
                    c1 = interpolate(v1, v3, (width - v1.projPos.x) / (v3.projPos.x - v1.projPos.x), true);
                    c2 = interpolate(v2, v3, (width - v2.projPos.x) / (v3.projPos.x - v2.projPos.x), true);
                    c1.projPos.x = width;
                    c2.projPos.x = width;
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, c2, v3, 2);
                    return;
                case 4:// 3
                    c1 = interpolate(v3, v1, (width - v3.projPos.x) / (v1.projPos.x - v3.projPos.x), true);
                    c2 = interpolate(v3, v2, (width - v3.projPos.x) / (v2.projPos.x - v3.projPos.x), true);
                    c1.projPos.x = width;
                    c2.projPos.x = width;
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, v1, v2, 2);
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, v2, c2, 2);
                    return;
                case 5:// 3 1
                    c1 = interpolate(v3, v2, (width - v3.projPos.x) / (v2.projPos.x - v3.projPos.x), true);
                    c2 = interpolate(v1, v2, (width - v1.projPos.x) / (v2.projPos.x - v1.projPos.x), true);
                    c1.projPos.x = width;
                    c2.projPos.x = width;
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, c2, v2, 2);
                    return;
                case 6:// 2 3
                    c1 = interpolate(v2, v1, (width - v2.projPos.x) / (v1.projPos.x - v2.projPos.x), true);
                    c2 = interpolate(v3, v1, (width - v3.projPos.x) / (v1.projPos.x - v3.projPos.x), true);
                    c1.projPos.x = width;
                    c2.projPos.x = width;
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, c2, v1, 2);
                    return;
                case 7:// 1 2 3
                    return;
                }
            }
        case 2:// top
            flag = 0;
            if (v1.projPos.y < 0) flag |= 1;
            if (v2.projPos.y < 0) flag |= 2;
            if (v3.projPos.y < 0) flag |= 4;
            if (flag != 0) {
                switch (flag) {
                case 1:// 1
                    c1 = interpolate(v1, v2, -v1.projPos.y / (v2.projPos.y - v1.projPos.y), true);
                    c2 = interpolate(v1, v3, -v1.projPos.y / (v3.projPos.y - v1.projPos.y), true);
                    c1.projPos.y = 0;
                    c2.projPos.y = 0;
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, v2, v3, 3);
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, v3, c2, 3);
                    return;
                case 2:// 2
                    c1 = interpolate(v2, v3, -v2.projPos.y / (v3.projPos.y - v2.projPos.y), true);
                    c2 = interpolate(v2, v1, -v2.projPos.y / (v1.projPos.y - v2.projPos.y), true);
                    c1.projPos.y = 0;
                    c2.projPos.y = 0;
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, v3, v1, 3);
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, v1, c2, 3);
                    return;
                case 3:// 1 2
                    c1 = interpolate(v1, v3, -v1.projPos.y / (v3.projPos.y - v1.projPos.y), true);
                    c2 = interpolate(v2, v3, -v2.projPos.y / (v3.projPos.y - v2.projPos.y), true);
                    c1.projPos.y = 0;
                    c2.projPos.y = 0;
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, c2, v3, 3);
                    return;
                case 4:// 3
                    c1 = interpolate(v3, v1, -v3.projPos.y / (v1.projPos.y - v3.projPos.y), true);
                    c2 = interpolate(v3, v2, -v3.projPos.y / (v2.projPos.y - v3.projPos.y), true);
                    c1.projPos.y = 0;
                    c2.projPos.y = 0;
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, v1, v2, 3);
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, v2, c2, 3);
                    return;
                case 5:// 3 1
                    c1 = interpolate(v3, v2, -v3.projPos.y / (v2.projPos.y - v3.projPos.y), true);
                    c2 = interpolate(v1, v2, -v1.projPos.y / (v2.projPos.y - v1.projPos.y), true);
                    c1.projPos.y = 0;
                    c2.projPos.y = 0;
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, c2, v2, 3);
                    return;
                case 6:// 2 3
                    c1 = interpolate(v2, v1, -v2.projPos.y / (v1.projPos.y - v2.projPos.y), true);
                    c2 = interpolate(v3, v1, -v3.projPos.y / (v1.projPos.y - v3.projPos.y), true);
                    c1.projPos.y = 0;
                    c2.projPos.y = 0;
                    clipPolygonScreen(c1, c2, v1, 3);
                    return;
                case 7:// 1 2 3
                    return;
                }
            }
        case 3:// bottom
            flag = 0;
            if (v1.projPos.y > height) flag |= 1;
            if (v2.projPos.y > height) flag |= 2;
            if (v3.projPos.y > height) flag |= 4;
            if (flag != 0) {
                switch (flag) {
                case 1:// 1
                    c1 = interpolate(v1, v2, (height - v1.projPos.y) / (v2.projPos.y - v1.projPos.y), true);
                    c2 = interpolate(v1, v3, (height - v1.projPos.y) / (v3.projPos.y - v1.projPos.y), true);
                    c1.projPos.y = height;
                    c2.projPos.y = height;
                    renderTriangle(c1, v2, v3);
                    renderTriangle(c1, v3, c2);
                    return;
                case 2:// 2
                    c1 = interpolate(v2, v3, (height - v2.projPos.y) / (v3.projPos.y - v2.projPos.y), true);
                    c2 = interpolate(v2, v1, (height - v2.projPos.y) / (v1.projPos.y - v2.projPos.y), true);
                    c1.projPos.y = height;
                    c2.projPos.y = height;
                    renderTriangle(c1, v3, v1);
                    renderTriangle(c1, v1, c2);
                    return;
                case 3:// 1 2
                    c1 = interpolate(v1, v3, (height - v1.projPos.y) / (v3.projPos.y - v1.projPos.y), true);
                    c2 = interpolate(v2, v3, (height - v2.projPos.y) / (v3.projPos.y - v2.projPos.y), true);
                    c1.projPos.y = height;
                    c2.projPos.y = height;
                    renderTriangle(c1, c2, v3);
                    return;
                case 4:// 3
                    c1 = interpolate(v3, v1, (height - v3.projPos.y) / (v1.projPos.y - v3.projPos.y), true);
                    c2 = interpolate(v3, v2, (height - v3.projPos.y) / (v2.projPos.y - v3.projPos.y), true);
                    c1.projPos.y = height;
                    c2.projPos.y = height;
                    renderTriangle(c1, v1, v2);
                    renderTriangle(c1, v2, c2);
                    return;
                case 5:// 3 1
                    c1 = interpolate(v3, v2, (height - v3.projPos.y) / (v2.projPos.y - v3.projPos.y), true);
                    c2 = interpolate(v1, v2, (height - v1.projPos.y) / (v2.projPos.y - v1.projPos.y), true);
                    c1.projPos.y = height;
                    c2.projPos.y = height;
                    renderTriangle(c1, c2, v2);
                    return;
                case 6:// 2 3
                    c1 = interpolate(v2, v1, (height - v2.projPos.y) / (v1.projPos.y - v2.projPos.y), true);
                    c2 = interpolate(v3, v1, (height - v3.projPos.y) / (v1.projPos.y - v3.projPos.y), true);
                    c1.projPos.y = height;
                    c2.projPos.y = height;
                    renderTriangle(c1, c2, v1);
                    return;
                case 7:// 1 2 3
                    return;
                }
            }
        }
        renderTriangle(v1, v2, v3);
    }
    
    private function interpolate(v1:Vertex, v2:Vertex, t:Number, screen:Boolean):Vertex {
        var v3:Vertex = new Vertex();
        // v3.worldPos.x = v1.worldPos.x + (v2.worldPos.x - v1.worldPos.x) * t;
        // v3.worldPos.y = v1.worldPos.y + (v2.worldPos.y - v1.worldPos.y) * t;
        // v3.worldPos.z = v1.worldPos.z + (v2.worldPos.z - v1.worldPos.z) * t;
        if(screen) {
            v3.projPos.x = (v1.projPos.x + (v2.projPos.x - v1.projPos.x) * t) >> 0;
            v3.projPos.y = (v1.projPos.y + (v2.projPos.y - v1.projPos.y) * t) >> 0;
            v3.projPos.z = v1.projPos.z + (v2.projPos.z - v1.projPos.z) * t;
            v3.tu = v1.tu + (v2.tu - v1.tu) * t;
            v3.tv = v1.tv + (v2.tv - v1.tv) * t;
        } else {
            v3.viewPos.x = v1.viewPos.x + (v2.viewPos.x - v1.viewPos.x) * t;
            v3.viewPos.y = v1.viewPos.y + (v2.viewPos.y - v1.viewPos.y) * t;
            v3.viewPos.z = v1.viewPos.z + (v2.viewPos.z - v1.viewPos.z) * t;
            v3.u = v1.u + (v2.u - v1.u) * t;
            v3.v = v1.v + (v2.v - v1.v) * t;
        }
        return v3;
    }
    
    private function renderTriangle(v1:Vertex, v2:Vertex, v3:Vertex):void {
        if (v1.projPos.y < v2.projPos.y) {
            if (v2.projPos.y < v3.projPos.y) {
                vtop.reset(v1.projPos.x, v1.projPos.y, v1.projPos.z, v1.tu, v1.tv);
                vleft.reset(v2.projPos.x, v2.projPos.y, v2.projPos.z, v2.tu, v2.tv);
                vright.reset(v3.projPos.x, v3.projPos.y, v3.projPos.z, v3.tu, v3.tv);
            } else if (v1.projPos.y < v3.projPos.y) {
                vtop.reset(v1.projPos.x, v1.projPos.y, v1.projPos.z, v1.tu, v1.tv);
                vleft.reset(v3.projPos.x, v3.projPos.y, v3.projPos.z, v3.tu, v3.tv);
                vright.reset(v2.projPos.x, v2.projPos.y, v2.projPos.z, v2.tu, v2.tv);
            } else {
                vtop.reset(v3.projPos.x, v3.projPos.y, v3.projPos.z, v3.tu, v3.tv);
                vleft.reset(v1.projPos.x, v1.projPos.y, v1.projPos.z, v1.tu, v1.tv);
                vright.reset(v2.projPos.x, v2.projPos.y, v2.projPos.z, v2.tu, v2.tv);
            }
        } else {
            if (v2.projPos.y > v3.projPos.y) {
                vtop.reset(v3.projPos.x, v3.projPos.y, v3.projPos.z, v3.tu, v3.tv);
                vleft.reset(v2.projPos.x, v2.projPos.y, v2.projPos.z, v2.tu, v2.tv);
                vright.reset(v1.projPos.x, v1.projPos.y, v1.projPos.z, v1.tu, v1.tv);
            } else if (v1.projPos.y > v3.projPos.y) {
                vtop.reset(v2.projPos.x, v2.projPos.y, v2.projPos.z, v2.tu, v2.tv);
                vleft.reset(v3.projPos.x, v3.projPos.y, v3.projPos.z, v3.tu, v3.tv);
                vright.reset(v1.projPos.x, v1.projPos.y, v1.projPos.z, v1.tu, v1.tv);
            } else {
                vtop.reset(v2.projPos.x, v2.projPos.y, v2.projPos.z, v2.tu, v2.tv);
                vleft.reset(v1.projPos.x, v1.projPos.y, v1.projPos.z, v1.tu, v1.tv);
                vright.reset(v3.projPos.x, v3.projPos.y, v3.projPos.z, v3.tu, v3.tv);
            }
        }
        var min:int = vtop.y + 0.5;
        var mid:int = vleft.y + 0.5;
        var max:int = vright.y + 0.5;
        if ((vleft.x - vtop.x) / (vleft.y - vtop.y) > (vright.x - vtop.x) / (vright.y - vtop.y)) {
            var temp:RVtx = vleft;
            vleft = vright;
            vright = temp;
        }
        if (min == max) return;
        if (texUse) renderFlatTexture(vtop, vleft, vright, min, mid, max);
        else renderFlat(vtop, vleft, vright, min, mid, max);
    }
    
    private function renderFlat(top:RVtx, left:RVtx, right:RVtx, min:int, mid:int, max:int):void {
        var invLength:Number;
        const zBuffer:Vector.<Number> = this.zBuffer;
        const fBuffer:Vector.<uint> = this.fBuffer;
        var colorRGB:uint = color[6] << 16 | color[7] << 8 | color[8];
        
        // thickness
        var t:Number = (right.x - top.x) * (left.y - top.y) - (left.x - top.x) * (right.y - top.y);
        if (t == 0) return;
        t = 1 / t;
        
        // in scanline
        var lLength:int = left.y - top.y;
        var rLength:int = right.y - top.y;
        var lineZ:Number;
        const addLineZ:Number = ((right.z - top.z) * lLength - (left.z - top.z) * rLength) * t * 0xffffff;
        
        // left data
        var lY:int = left.y;
        invLength = 1 / lLength;
        var lX:Number = top.x;
        var lAddX:Number = (left.x - top.x) * invLength;
        var lZ:Number = top.z;
        var lAddZ:Number = (left.z - top.z) * invLength;
        
        // right data
        var rY:int = right.y;
        invLength = 1 / rLength;
        var rX:Number = top.x;
        var rAddX:Number = (right.x - top.x) * invLength;
        var rZ:Number = top.z;
        var rAddZ:Number = (right.z - top.z) * invLength;
        
        var y:int = min;
        var offset:int = min * width;
        
        while (y < max) {
            if (y == mid) {
                // flip left and right
                if (lY == rY)
                    return;
                if (y == lY) {
                    lLength = right.y - left.y;
                    invLength = 1 / lLength;
                    lX = left.x;
                    lAddX = (right.x - left.x) * invLength;
                    lZ = left.z;
                    lAddZ = (right.z - left.z) * invLength;
                }
                if (y == rY) {
                    rLength = left.y - right.y;
                    invLength = 1 / rLength;
                    rX = right.x;
                    rAddX = (left.x - right.x) * invLength;
                    rZ = right.z;
                    rAddZ = (left.z - right.z) * invLength;
                }
            }
            const ilx:int = lX;
            const irx:int = rX;
            if (irx - ilx > 0) {
                lineZ = lZ * 0xffffff;
                var pix:int = offset + ilx;
                const end:int = offset + irx;
                while (pix < end) {
                    if (zBuffer[pix] < lineZ) {
                        fBuffer[pix] = colorRGB;
                        zBuffer[pix] = lineZ;
                    }
                    pix++;
                    lineZ += addLineZ;
                }
            }
            lX += lAddX;
            rX += rAddX;
            lZ += lAddZ;
            rZ += rAddZ;
            offset += width;
            y++;
        }
    }
    
    private function renderFlatTexture(top:RVtx, left:RVtx, right:RVtx, min:int, mid:int, max:int):void {
        var invLength:Number;
        const zBuffer:Vector.<Number> = this.zBuffer;
        const fBuffer:Vector.<uint> = this.fBuffer;
        const texel:Vector.<uint> = this.texel;
        const maskU:uint = texWidth - 1;
        const maskV:uint = texHeight - 1;
        const shift:uint = texShift;
        const cr:uint = color[0] + 1; // + 1 はビット演算のため
        const cg:uint = color[1] + 1;
        const cb:uint = color[2] + 1;
        const spc:uint = color[3] << 16 | color[4] << 8 | color[5];
        
        // thickness
        var t:Number = (right.x - top.x) * (left.y - top.y) - (left.x - top.x) * (right.y - top.y);
        if (t == 0) return;
        t = 1 / t;
        
        // in scanline
        var lLength:int = left.y - top.y;
        var rLength:int = right.y - top.y;
        var lineZ:Number;
        var lineU:Number;
        var lineV:Number;
        const addLineZ:Number = ((right.z - top.z) * lLength - (left.z - top.z) * rLength) * t * 0xffffff;
        const addLineU:Number = ((right.u - top.u) * lLength - (left.u - top.u) * rLength) * t * 0xffff;
        const addLineV:Number = ((right.v - top.v) * lLength - (left.v - top.v) * rLength) * t * 0xffff;
        
        // left data
        var lY:int = left.y;
        invLength = 1 / lLength;
        var lX:Number = top.x;
        var lAddX:Number = (left.x - top.x) * invLength;
        var lZ:Number = top.z;
        var lAddZ:Number = (left.z - top.z) * invLength;
        var lU:Number = top.u;
        var lAddU:Number = (left.u - top.u) * invLength;
        var lV:Number = top.v;
        var lAddV:Number = (left.v - top.v) * invLength;
        
        // right data
        var rY:int = right.y;
        invLength = 1 / rLength;
        var rX:Number = top.x;
        var rAddX:Number = (right.x - top.x) * invLength;
        var rZ:Number = top.z;
        var rAddZ:Number = (right.z - top.z) * invLength;
        var rU:Number = top.u;
        var rAddU:Number = (right.u - top.u) * invLength;
        var rV:Number = top.u;
        var rAddV:Number = (right.v - top.v) * invLength;
        
        var y:int = min;
        var offset:int = min * width;
        while (y < max) {
            if (y == mid) {
                // flip left and right
                if (lY == rY)
                    return;
                if (y == lY) {
                    lLength = right.y - left.y;
                    invLength = 1 / lLength;
                    lX = left.x;
                    lAddX = (right.x - left.x) * invLength;
                    lZ = left.z;
                    lAddZ = (right.z - left.z) * invLength;
                    lU = left.u;
                    lAddU = (right.u - left.u) * invLength;
                    lV = left.v;
                    lAddV = (right.v - left.v) * invLength;
                }
                if (y == rY) {
                    rLength = left.y - right.y;
                    invLength = 1 / rLength;
                    rX = right.x;
                    rAddX = (left.x - right.x) * invLength;
                    rZ = right.z;
                    rAddZ = (left.z - right.z) * invLength;
                    rU = right.u;
                    rAddU = (left.u - right.u) * invLength;
                    rV = right.v;
                    rAddV = (left.v - right.v) * invLength;
                }
            }
            const ilx:int = lX;
            const irx:int = rX;
            if (irx - ilx > 0) {
                lineZ = lZ * 0xffffff;
                lineU = lU * 0xffff;
                lineV = lV * 0xffff;
                var pix:int = offset + ilx;
                const end:int = offset + irx;
                while (pix < end) {
                    if (zBuffer[pix] < lineZ) {
                        var col:uint = texel[lineU >> 16 & maskU | (lineV >> 16 & maskV) << shift];
                        col = (col & 0xff0000) * cr >> 8 & 0xff0000 | (col & 0xff00) * cg >> 8 & 0xff00 | (col & 0xff) * cb >> 8 & 0xff;
                        var temp:uint = (col & spc) + ((col ^ spc) >> 1 & 0x7f7f7f) & 0x808080;
                        var mask:uint = (temp << 1) - (temp >> 7);
                        fBuffer[pix] = col + spc - mask | mask;
                        zBuffer[pix] = lineZ;
                    }
                    pix++;
                    lineZ += addLineZ;
                    lineU += addLineU;
                    lineV += addLineV;
                }
            }
            lX += lAddX;
            rX += rAddX;
            lU += lAddU;
            rU += rAddU;
            lV += lAddV;
            rV += rAddV;
            lZ += lAddZ;
            rZ += rAddZ;
            offset += width;
            y++;
        }
    }
    
    public function renderPoint(vertex:Vec3D):void {
        worldMatrix.mulEqualVector(vertex);
        viewMatrix.mulEqualVector(vertex);
        projectionMatrix.mulEqualVector(vertex);
        var invW:Number = 1 / vertex.w;
        vertex.x *= invW;
        vertex.y *= invW;
        vertex.z *= invW;
        vertex.x = (width2 + vertex.x * width2) >> 0;
        vertex.y = (height2 + vertex.y * height2) >> 0;
        if (vertex.x >= 0 && vertex.x < width && vertex.y >= 0 && vertex.y < height) {
            var index:uint = vertex.y * width + vertex.x;
            fBuffer[index] = 0xffffff;
        }
    }
    
    public function endScene():void {
        img.setVector(img.rect, fBuffer);
    }
    
    public function lookAt(position:Vec3D, target:Vec3D, up:Vec3D):void {
        cameraPosition = position;
        cameraTarget = target;
        cameraUp = up;
        var axisZ:Vec3D = cameraTarget.sub(cameraPosition);
        axisZ.normalize();
        var axisX:Vec3D = cameraUp.cross(axisZ);
        axisX.normalize();
        var axisY:Vec3D = axisZ.cross(axisX);
        viewMatrix.e00 = axisX.x;
        viewMatrix.e01 = axisY.x;
        viewMatrix.e02 = axisZ.x;
        viewMatrix.e03 = 0;
        viewMatrix.e10 = axisX.y;
        viewMatrix.e11 = axisY.y;
        viewMatrix.e12 = axisZ.y;
        viewMatrix.e13 = 0;
        viewMatrix.e20 = axisX.z;
        viewMatrix.e21 = axisY.z;
        viewMatrix.e22 = axisZ.z;
        viewMatrix.e23 = 0;
        viewMatrix.e30 = -axisX.dot(cameraPosition);
        viewMatrix.e31 = -axisY.dot(cameraPosition);
        viewMatrix.e32 = -axisZ.dot(cameraPosition);
        viewMatrix.e33 = 1;
    }
    
    public function perspective(fovY:Number, near:Number, far:Number):void {
        this.near = near;
        this.far = far;
        var h:Number = Math.cos(fovY * 0.5) / Math.sin(fovY * 0.5);
        var w:Number = h * aspect;
        var ffn:Number = far / (far - near);
        projectionMatrix.e00 = w;
        projectionMatrix.e01 = 0;
        projectionMatrix.e02 = 0;
        projectionMatrix.e03 = 0;
        projectionMatrix.e10 = 0;
        projectionMatrix.e11 = h;
        projectionMatrix.e12 = 0;
        projectionMatrix.e13 = 0;
        projectionMatrix.e20 = 0;
        projectionMatrix.e21 = 0;
        projectionMatrix.e22 = ffn;
        projectionMatrix.e23 = 1;
        projectionMatrix.e30 = 0;
        projectionMatrix.e31 = 0;
        projectionMatrix.e32 = -near * ffn;
        projectionMatrix.e33 = 0;
    }
}

class Light {
    public static const DISABLED:uint = 0;
    public static const DIRECTIONAL:uint = 1;
    public var dir:Vec3D;
    public var pos:Vec3D;
    public var r:Number;
    public var g:Number;
    public var b:Number;
    public var type:uint;
    public function Light() {
        type = DISABLED;
        dir = new Vec3D();
        pos = new Vec3D();
    }
    
    public function directional(dx:Number, dy:Number, dz:Number, r:Number, g:Number, b:Number):void {
        type = DIRECTIONAL;
        dir.setVector(dx, dy, dz);
        dir.normalize();
        this.r = r;
        this.g = g;
        this.b = b;
    }
    
    public function disable():void {
        type = DISABLED;
    }
}

class Model {
    public var vertices:Vector.<Vertex>;
    public var faces:Vector.<Vector.<uint>>;
    public var uvs:Vector.<Vector.<uint>>;
    public function Model() {
        vertices = new Vector.<Vertex>();
        faces = new Vector.<Vector.<uint>>();
        uvs = new Vector.<Vector.<uint>>();
    }
    
    public function toBox(w:Number, h:Number, d:Number):void {
        vertices[0] = new Vertex(-w, -h, -d);
        vertices[1] = new Vertex(w, -h, -d);
        vertices[2] = new Vertex(w, -h, d);
        vertices[3] = new Vertex(-w, -h, d);
        vertices[4] = new Vertex(-w, h, -d);
        vertices[5] = new Vertex(w, h, -d);
        vertices[6] = new Vertex(w, h, d);
        vertices[7] = new Vertex( -w, h, d);
        for (var i:int = 0; i < 12; i++)
            initFace(i);
        setFace(0, 0, 1, 2, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1);
        setFace(1, 0, 2, 3, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1);
        setFace(2, 7, 6, 5, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1);
        setFace(3, 7, 5, 4, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1);
        setFace(4, 4, 5, 1, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1);
        setFace(5, 4, 1, 0, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1);
        setFace(6, 6, 7, 3, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1);
        setFace(7, 6, 3, 2, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1);
        setFace(8, 5, 6, 2, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1);
        setFace(9, 5, 2, 1, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1);
        setFace(10, 7, 4, 0, 0, 0, 1, 0, 1, 1);
        setFace(11, 7, 0, 3, 0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1);
    }
    
    public function initFace(id:uint):void {
        faces[id] = new Vector.<uint>(3, true);
        uvs[id] = new Vector.<uint>(6, true);
    }
    
    public function setFace(id:uint, vtx1:uint, vtx2:uint, vtx3:uint,
    u1:uint = -1, v1:uint = -1, u2:uint = -1, v2:uint = -1, u3:uint = -1, v3:uint = -1):void {
        faces[id][0] = vtx1;
        faces[id][1] = vtx2;
        faces[id][2] = vtx3;
        uvs[id][0] = u1;
        uvs[id][1] = v1;
        uvs[id][2] = u2;
        uvs[id][3] = v2;
        uvs[id][4] = u3;
        uvs[id][5] = v3;
    }
    
    public function render(renderer:Renderer):void {
        for (var i:int = 0; i < faces.length; i++) {
            const v1:Vertex = vertices[faces[i][0]];
            const v2:Vertex = vertices[faces[i][1]];
            const v3:Vertex = vertices[faces[i][2]];
            if (uvs[i][0] != -1) {
                v1.u = uvs[i][0];
                v1.v = uvs[i][1];
                v2.u = uvs[i][2];
                v2.v = uvs[i][3];
                v3.u = uvs[i][4];
                v3.v = uvs[i][5];
            }
            renderer.renderPolygon(v1, v2, v3);
        }
    }
}

class Vertex {
    public var pos:Vec3D;
    public var worldPos:Vec3D;
    public var viewPos:Vec3D;
    public var projPos:Vec3D;
    public var u:Number;
    public var v:Number;
    public var tu:Number;
    public var tv:Number;
    
    public function Vertex(x:Number = 0, y:Number = 0, z:Number = 0):void {
        pos = new Vec3D(x, y, z);
        worldPos = new Vec3D();
        viewPos = new Vec3D();
        projPos = new Vec3D();
    }
}

class RVtx {
    public var x:int;
    public var y:int;
    public var z:Number;
    public var u:Number;
    public var v:Number;
    
    public function RVtx():void {
    }
    
    public function reset(x:Number, y:Number, z:Number, u:Number, v:Number):void {
        this.x = x;
        this.y = y;
        this.z = z;
        this.u = u;
        this.v = v;
    }
}

class Texture {
    public var texel:Vector.<uint>;
    public var width:uint;
    public var height:uint;
    public var shift:uint;
    public var size:uint;
    public var loaded:Boolean;
    
    public function Texture() {
        loaded = false;
    }
    
    public function load(url:String):void {
        loaded = false;
        var bmd:BitmapData = null;
        var loader:Loader = new Loader();
        loader.load(new URLRequest(url), new LoaderContext(true));
        loader.contentLoaderInfo.addEventListener(Event.COMPLETE,
            function(e:Event = null):void {
                bmd = Bitmap(loader.content).bitmapData;
                width = bmd.width;
                height = bmd.height;
                size = width * height;
                shift = 0;
                var i:int;
                for (i = 0; i < 16; i++) if (((width - 1) & (1 << i)) != 0) shift++;
                var pix:Vector.<uint> = bmd.getVector(bmd.rect);
                texel = new Vector.<uint>(size, true);
                for (i = 0; i < size; i++) texel[i] = pix[i];
                loaded = true;
            });
    }
}

class Vec3D {
    /*
     * [x y z w]
     */
    public var x:Number;
    public var y:Number;
    public var z:Number;
    public var w:Number;
    
    public function Vec3D(x:Number = 0, y:Number = 0, z:Number = 0, w:Number = 0) {
        setVector(x, y, z, w);
    }
    
    public function setVector(x:Number = 0, y:Number = 0, z:Number = 0, w:Number = 0):void {
        this.x = x;
        this.y = y;
        this.z = z;
        this.w = w;
    }
    
    public function add(v:Vec3D):Vec3D {
        return new Vec3D(x + v.x, y + v.y, z + v.z);
    }
    
    public function addEqual(v:Vec3D):void {
        x += v.x;
        y += v.y;
        z += v.z;
    }
    
    public function sub(v:Vec3D):Vec3D {
        return new Vec3D(x - v.x, y - v.y, z - v.z);
    }
    
    public function subEqual(v:Vec3D):void {
        x -= v.x;
        y -= v.y;
        z -= v.z;
    }
    
    public function mul(s:Number):Vec3D {
        return new Vec3D(x * s, y * s, z * s);
    }
    
    public function mulEqual(s:Number):void {
        x *= s;
        y *= s;
        z *= s;
    }
    
    public function dot(v:Vec3D):Number {
        return x * v.x + y * v.y + z * v.z;
    }
    
    public function cross(v:Vec3D):Vec3D {
        return new Vec3D(y * v.z - z * v.y, z * v.x - x * v.z, x * v.y - y * v.x);
    }
    
    public function length():Number {
        return Math.sqrt(x * x + y * y + z * z);
    }
    
    public function normalize():void {
        var length:Number = length();
        if (length != 0 && length != 1) {
            length = 1 / length;
            x *= length;
            y *= length;
            z *= length;
        }
    }
}

class Mat4x4 {
    /*
     * [e00 e01 e02 e03]
     * [e10 e11 e12 e13]
     * [e20 e21 e22 e23]
     * [e30 e31 e32 e33]
     */
    public var e00:Number;
    public var e01:Number;
    public var e02:Number;
    public var e03:Number;
    public var e10:Number;
    public var e11:Number;
    public var e12:Number;
    public var e13:Number;
    public var e20:Number;
    public var e21:Number;
    public var e22:Number;
    public var e23:Number;
    public var e30:Number;
    public var e31:Number;
    public var e32:Number;
    public var e33:Number;
    
    public function Mat4x4(e00:Number = 1, e01:Number = 0, e02:Number = 0, e03:Number = 0,
        e10:Number = 0, e11:Number = 1, e12:Number = 0, e13:Number = 0,
        e20:Number = 0, e21:Number = 0, e22:Number = 1, e23:Number = 0,
        e30:Number = 0, e31:Number = 0, e32:Number = 0, e33:Number = 1) {
        setMatrix(e00, e01, e02, e03, e10, e11, e12, e13,
            e20, e21, e22, e23, e30, e31, e32, e33);
    }
    
    public function identity():void {
        setMatrix();
    }
    
    
    public function setMatrix(e00:Number = 1, e01:Number = 0, e02:Number = 0, e03:Number = 0,
        e10:Number = 0, e11:Number = 1, e12:Number = 0, e13:Number = 0,
        e20:Number = 0, e21:Number = 0, e22:Number = 1, e23:Number = 0,
        e30:Number = 0, e31:Number = 0, e32:Number = 0, e33:Number = 1):void {
        this.e00 = e00;
        this.e01 = e01;
        this.e02 = e02;
        this.e03 = e03;
        this.e10 = e10;
        this.e11 = e11;
        this.e12 = e12;
        this.e13 = e13;
        this.e20 = e20;
        this.e21 = e21;
        this.e22 = e22;
        this.e23 = e23;
        this.e30 = e30;
        this.e31 = e31;
        this.e32 = e32;
        this.e33 = e33;
    }
    
    public function rotateX(theta:Number):void {
        var sin:Number = Math.sin(theta);
        var cos:Number = Math.cos(theta);
        var m:Mat4x4 = new Mat4x4();
        m.e11 = cos;
        m.e12 = sin;
        m.e21 = -sin;
        m.e22 = cos;
        mulEqualMatrix(m);
    }
    
    public function rotateY(theta:Number):void {
        var sin:Number = Math.sin(theta);
        var cos:Number = Math.cos(theta);
        var m:Mat4x4 = new Mat4x4();
        m.e00 = cos;
        m.e02 = sin;
        m.e20 = -sin;
        m.e22 = cos;
        mulEqualMatrix(m);
    }
    
    public function rotateZ(theta:Number):void {
        var sin:Number = Math.sin(theta);
        var cos:Number = Math.cos(theta);
        var m:Mat4x4 = new Mat4x4();
        m.e00 = cos;
        m.e01 = -sin;
        m.e10 = sin;
        m.e11 = cos;
        mulEqualMatrix(m);
    }
    
    public function translate(tx:Number, ty:Number, tz:Number):void {
        var m:Mat4x4 = new Mat4x4();
        m.e30 = tx;
        m.e31 = ty;
        m.e32 = tz;
        mulEqualMatrix(m);
    }
    
    public function scale(sx:Number, sy:Number, sz:Number):void {
        var m:Mat4x4 = new Mat4x4();
        m.e00 = sx;
        m.e11 = sy;
        m.e22 = sz;
        mulEqualMatrix(m);
    }
    
    public function mulMatrix(m:Mat4x4):Mat4x4 {
        var t11:Number = e00 * m.e00 + e01 * m.e10 + e02 * m.e20 + e03 * m.e30;
        var t12:Number = e00 * m.e01 + e01 * m.e11 + e02 * m.e21 + e03 * m.e31;
        var t13:Number = e00 * m.e02 + e01 * m.e12 + e02 * m.e22 + e03 * m.e32;
        var t14:Number = e00 * m.e03 + e01 * m.e13 + e02 * m.e23 + e03 * m.e33;
        var t21:Number = e10 * m.e00 + e11 * m.e10 + e12 * m.e20 + e13 * m.e30;
        var t22:Number = e10 * m.e01 + e11 * m.e11 + e12 * m.e21 + e13 * m.e31;
        var t23:Number = e10 * m.e02 + e11 * m.e12 + e12 * m.e22 + e13 * m.e32;
        var t24:Number = e10 * m.e03 + e11 * m.e13 + e12 * m.e23 + e13 * m.e33;
        var t31:Number = e20 * m.e00 + e21 * m.e10 + e22 * m.e20 + e23 * m.e30;
        var t32:Number = e20 * m.e01 + e21 * m.e11 + e22 * m.e21 + e23 * m.e31;
        var t33:Number = e20 * m.e02 + e21 * m.e12 + e22 * m.e22 + e23 * m.e32;
        var t34:Number = e20 * m.e03 + e21 * m.e13 + e22 * m.e23 + e23 * m.e33;
        var t41:Number = e30 * m.e00 + e31 * m.e10 + e32 * m.e20 + e33 * m.e30;
        var t42:Number = e30 * m.e01 + e31 * m.e11 + e32 * m.e21 + e33 * m.e31;
        var t43:Number = e30 * m.e02 + e31 * m.e12 + e32 * m.e22 + e33 * m.e32;
        var t44:Number = e30 * m.e03 + e31 * m.e13 + e32 * m.e23 + e33 * m.e33;
        return new Mat4x4(t11, t12, t13, t14, t21, t22, t23, t24, t31, t32, t33, t34, t41,
                t42, t43, t44);
    }
    
    public function mulEqualMatrix(m:Mat4x4):void {
        var t11:Number = e00 * m.e00 + e01 * m.e10 + e02 * m.e20 + e03 * m.e30;
        var t12:Number = e00 * m.e01 + e01 * m.e11 + e02 * m.e21 + e03 * m.e31;
        var t13:Number = e00 * m.e02 + e01 * m.e12 + e02 * m.e22 + e03 * m.e32;
        var t14:Number = e00 * m.e03 + e01 * m.e13 + e02 * m.e23 + e03 * m.e33;
        var t21:Number = e10 * m.e00 + e11 * m.e10 + e12 * m.e20 + e13 * m.e30;
        var t22:Number = e10 * m.e01 + e11 * m.e11 + e12 * m.e21 + e13 * m.e31;
        var t23:Number = e10 * m.e02 + e11 * m.e12 + e12 * m.e22 + e13 * m.e32;
        var t24:Number = e10 * m.e03 + e11 * m.e13 + e12 * m.e23 + e13 * m.e33;
        var t31:Number = e20 * m.e00 + e21 * m.e10 + e22 * m.e20 + e23 * m.e30;
        var t32:Number = e20 * m.e01 + e21 * m.e11 + e22 * m.e21 + e23 * m.e31;
        var t33:Number = e20 * m.e02 + e21 * m.e12 + e22 * m.e22 + e23 * m.e32;
        var t34:Number = e20 * m.e03 + e21 * m.e13 + e22 * m.e23 + e23 * m.e33;
        var t41:Number = e30 * m.e00 + e31 * m.e10 + e32 * m.e20 + e33 * m.e30;
        var t42:Number = e30 * m.e01 + e31 * m.e11 + e32 * m.e21 + e33 * m.e31;
        var t43:Number = e30 * m.e02 + e31 * m.e12 + e32 * m.e22 + e33 * m.e32;
        var t44:Number = e30 * m.e03 + e31 * m.e13 + e32 * m.e23 + e33 * m.e33;
        setMatrix(t11, t12, t13, t14, t21, t22, t23, t24, t31, t32, t33, t34, t41,
                t42, t43, t44);
    }
    
    public function mulVector(v:Vec3D):Vec3D {
        return new Vec3D(e00 * v.x + e10 * v.y + e20 * v.z + e30,
                    e01 * v.x + e11 * v.y + e21 * v.z + e31,
                    e02 * v.x + e12 * v.y + e22 * v.z + e32,
                    e03 * v.x + e13 * v.y + e23 * v.z + e33);
    }
    
    public function mulEqualVector(v:Vec3D):void {
        v.setVector(e00 * v.x + e10 * v.y + e20 * v.z + e30,
                    e01 * v.x + e11 * v.y + e21 * v.z + e31,
                    e02 * v.x + e12 * v.y + e22 * v.z + e32,
                    e03 * v.x + e13 * v.y + e23 * v.z + e33);
    }
}